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Vol 0 No No 5 (2016): Volume 9 – No 5 – July-Sep 2016
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is one of the major and exacer- bating health problems worldwide; T2D is predicted to affect 490 million in 2030 (Zhang, et al., 2010). Strong genetic in uences and many polymorphisms have been reproducibly associated with T2D.Insulin resistance in muscle, liver, and adipose tissues is a primary charac- teristic of most patients with T2D; as such, these tissues become resistant to endogenous and exogenous insulin. The interaction of insulin with target tissues is mediated by insulin receptor (INSR), a glycoprotein implicated in directing insulin to target cells and initiating cell responses to insulin, (Gold ne, 1987 Herder and Roden, 2011, Voight, et al., 2010). High-mobility group A1 (HMGA1) is an architectural transcription factor involved in numerous biological functions in the nucleus, including regulation of DNA replication, transcription, recombination, and repair; among these functions, transcriptional regulation of gene expression is considered as the most important. After HMGA1 binds to DNA, HMGA1 can be polymerized with other transcription factors, forming an “enhanceo- some†to regulate gene transcription; thus, gene expres- sions are positively or negatively regulated(Bustin and Reeves, 1996). Studies on humans and knockout mice have suggested that HMGA1 is involved in to T2D patho- genesis through the regulation of INSR gene expres- sion; INSR gene expression is decreased by functional HMGA1 gene variants. HMGA1-de cient patients have been biologically investigated because of their clinical value. However, whether HMGA1 single gene deletion- or mutation-induced insulin resistance is the underlying cause of T2D remains unknown, (Foti, et al., 2005). Low- frequency insertion polymorphism IVS5-13insC (c.136- 14_136-13insC) has been identi ed and associated with insulin resistance and T2D among individuals of white European ancestry and Chinese populations, (Chiefari, et al., 2011 Liu, et al., 2012)
Published: 2017-10-03

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Good journals, magazines and periodicals have a leading role to play in shaping science! As teachers we have great responsibilities, we have to advocate our students to accomplish and show them the path to test their mettle in hard times to excel. If the zeal and enthusiasm are correctly infused by a teacher into his student, fundamental science will never take a back seat. We, as teachers have to fuel our science students with a never say die attitude!Good journals, magazines and periodicals have a leading role to play in shaping science! As teachers we have great responsibilities, we have to advocate our students to accomplish and show them the path to test their mettle in hard times to excel. If the zeal and enthusiasm are correctly infused by a teacher into his student, fundamental science will never take a back seat. We, as teachers have to fuel our science students with a never say die attitude!